Egyptian Mathematics Numbers Hieroglyphs

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Egyptian Mathematics Numbers Hieroglyphs and Math problems for kids

The ancient Egyptians were possibly the first civilisation to practice the scientific arts. Indeed, the word chemistry is derived from the word Alchemy which is the ancient name for Egypt. Where the Egyptians really excelled was in medicine and applied mathematics. But although there is a large body of papyrus literature describing their achievements in medicine, there are no records of how they reached their mathematical conclusions. Of course they must have had an advanced understanding of the subject because their exploits in engineering, astronomy and administration would not have been possible without it.

Hieroglyphic Numbers

Hieroglyphic Numbers

The Egyptians had a decimal system using seven different symbols.

  • 1 is shown by a single stroke.
  • 10 is shown by a drawing of a hobble for cattle.
  • 100 is represented by a coil of rope.
  • 1,000 a drawing of a lotus plant.
  • 10,000 is represented by a finger.
  • 100,000  a tadpole or frog
  • 1,000,000 figure of a god with arms raised above his head.


3,244 and 21,237

3,244 and 21,237

The conventions for reading and writing numbers is quite simple; the higher number is always written in front of the lower number and where there is more than one row of numbers the reader should start at the top.


hieroglyphic Fractions

All ancient Egyptian fractions, with the exception of 2/3, are unit fractions, that is fractions with numerator 1.
For example 1/2, 1/7, 1/34.

Unit fractions are written additively:
1/4 1/26 means 1/4 + 1/26. and 1/4 + 1/28 = our 2/7.

The hieroglyph for ‘R’ was used as the word ‘part’. For example:

Eye of Horus

Eye of Horus

In one of the ancient stories the god Seth attacked his brother the god Horus and gouged out his eye and then tore it to pieces. Fortunately for Horus the god Thoth was able to put the pieces back together and heal his eye.

In honour of this story the ancient Egyptians also used the pieces of Horus’s eye to describe fractions.

  • The right side of the eye = 1/2
  • The pupil = 1/4
  • The eyebrow = 1/8
  • The left side of the eye = 1/16
  • The curved tail = 1/32
  • The teardrop = 1/64

Math Using Hieroglyphs

This first math test is easy for  for 10 – 11 year olds

Mathematics Problems one – Easy

Now for more difficult hieroglyphic Math tests

The Egyptian Math Worksheet Creator

The Egyptian Math Worksheet Creator is base on the amazingly successful Ancient Egyptian Math Problems. These Math puzzles are used by thousands of teachers around the world and now with Worksheet Creator you can make your own math puzzles.

  • Drawing and text tools
  • Complete sets of numbers in Hieroglyphs and Hieratic,
  • Support images such as Egyptian Sudoku boards
  • Import your own images and edited them.
  • 20 templates and answer sheets for different age groups
  • Ancient Egyptian method of multiplication.


You may use the material on this site for Educational, non-profit purposes provided I’m credited with a link back to this site. To use the materials on this site please eMail me and ask permission. All Text & artwork is © Mark Millmore. Discovering Egypt Website Established 1997